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Austria: fascism in WWII; Jews and others; wartime; generally counted under the “six million” of the Nazi genocide, since Austria was part of Germany at the time.Azerbaijan: 1988-1994: some tens of thousands of Armenians; Armenian army reciprocated with some thousands of killings.Armenia: thousands of killings in war with Azerbaijan, 1988-1994; marginally genocide (largely ordinary warfare). *Australia: Aboriginals; small and uncertain numbers, but, as proportion of total, an enormous genocide.Deliberate destruction of culture (banning of language, destroying hunting and foraging grounds, etc.) much more prevalent than killing, but plenty of killing in early decades.Indonesia in 1965-66 saw genocide, rebellion, civil war, and mob violence, all going on in different places at the same time, or in the same place at different times, but with actual genocide clearly the major killer. The same applies to other failed-state cases, including Libya, Somalia, South Sudan, Syria, and many more.Many had multiple cases of murderous autocracies, especially when fascist (or, in the USSR case, repressive tsarist) countries transitioned to communism, with murderous regimes both times (n=11; China, Cuba, USSR, east Europe).This largely ended by 1930, but Aboriginals were not legally citizens till the 1970s.Cultural destruction continues, but worse now is ecocide (Short 207-158), though using Aboriginal lands as outright sacrifice zones is far less easy than once.
Christians carried out genocide in Lebanon in its civil war, and Christian genocide of Muslims was nipped in the bud in the Central African Republic in 2014. Some of these, most famously Germany under Hitler and Italy under Mussolini (and also Philippines under Marcos), declared dictatorship before starting the actual genocide.Situation of regime consolidation, but then simply genocide without any real trigger—a rather rare case.*Brazil: throughout history, and ongoing, anti-Native American bias leads to regular genocide or genocidal treatment of Native American groups.Rummel is cited below where he is the last or best authority. Stanton’s figures are consistently higher than Rummel’s, reflecting better historical scholarship on these topics, and also more killing in many countries, since Rummel’s count, which ended in 1987. 115 cases ranging from low-level ongoing politicide to full genocide. Many cases are ongoing murder with occasional over long periods, notably settler wars in 19 century Brazil. Some cases, notably in the Middle East, are currently unclear.We have no idea how much killing is cold-blooded murder by government of its own peaceable subjects (i.e. This makes comparison of the extent of genocide impossible in many, even most, cases. To start with our first case, Afghanistan saw clear genocide of the Hazaras under the Taliban; mass killing of civilians for various reasons by them and by warlords; and a great deal of indiscriminate murder of anyone in the way of battle during the endemic wars.
1975-2002, civil war for independence followed by random killing; about 500,000 Umbundu-Ovumbundu in genocidal suppression campaigns. Argentina: During the rule by the “Colonels,” 1976-1983: at least 20,000, probably 30,000; Jews, Communists, leftists, dissidents.